Attitude and Politics Encore! Big plan on 3 controversial matters implying Communautarism, Verbal abuse against women, Media, Social Platforms and High Technology in Mauritius

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A couple of days ago, I wrote a blog post regarding an argument I had with a friend, which finally ended into having me apologizing since I admitted that I was wrong in my purposes, though my aim was to be honest with that person. I also blamed that same bad attitude that is unfortunately part of the Mauritian mores and within the politic environment. Because the example mostly comes from the top, rarely from the bottom, doesn’t it?

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Actually in Mauritius, there are three public figures from Mauritius who are in the spotlight and running a lot of ink in our local newspapers: Ravi Rutnah, Kalyan Tarolah and Showkutally Soodhun. What do those three people have in common? Here are the facts below:

  • They are public figures from Mauritius
  • They are politicians
  • They are implemented into huge scandals
  • They have been disrespectful against women
  • They were arrested by the CCID
  • They were forced to resign from their actual position in the government since their controversies and scandals became public
  • It’s thanks to the social platforms and high technology that the whole population came to know about their scandals.

One day, a friend of mine, who is also a passionate of modern politics, wrote on all his social platforms “Behave yourselves, Politicians. The Youth are Watching”. Simple, but very strong words that he wrote, and I give him completely right. Because it’s from the top that we find our examples and role models. In public, we rely on our government and all those who are part of our community helpers, such as firemen, doctors, teachers, nurses, lawyers, etc. In private, we rely on our family elders, our neighbors, our friends and even on our enemies. But to be able to teach the good attitude to our young generation in private, we find our own source especially in public, thanks to the intervention of the media through newspapers, internet, television, radio, social platforms, magazines and so on, don’t we? And there, the question that will come after that debate is: Whom to blame? The politicians? The victims? The journalists who diffused the information publicly? The population? The government? The answer will come at the end of that debate. Let’s first have more details about those three political personages and see.

  1. Ravi Rutnah

For those who don’t know about Ravi Rutnah, he is known as Satyaprakashsing Rutnah, is a Mauritian barrister-in-law, and known as the 3rd Member of the Constituency no. 7 of Piton Riviere du Rempart. He was also known for being the lawyer of the suspect Avinash Treebhoowon, who was implicated in the murder of Irish Michaela Harte. He was recently arrested by the CCID to be questioned about a mysterious DVD which arrived at his doorstep in an anonymous courier, where the murder scene was filmed. But here, it does not matter about that scandal, which made a lot of ink flow as well in Mauritius as in the region of Ireland and Great Britain, where the reputation of a lot of Mauritian people settled in those countries was challenged by the views of the local inhabitants on them. Here it’s something much different where he is implicated, since recently, he insulted a young female journalist in the name of Laetitia Melidor, who dared telling him that he was a service barker! In return, Ravi Rutnah was so furious that in his anger, he insulted the young journalist in Creole as a Female who isn’t even worth a female dog! Further to that insult, he apologised partly since he admitted having insulted her and apologised to all women of Mauritius, but he never mentioned whether he would apologise or not towards the journalist. Prime Minister Pravind Jugnauth blamed that remark from Ravi Rutnah while he was overseas and mentioned that he would ask Ravi Rutnah for his own explanations when he would come back in Mauritius. A couple of days after that scandal, Ravi Rutnah resigned from his functions, but when he was interviewed about the reason behind his resignation, he refused to comment about it and simply said that he had other commitments and that his actual position as a barrister-in-law was taking too much of his time.

2. Kalyan Tarolah

Kalyan Tarolah is a teacher and he is known as the 3rd Member of the Constituency no. 10 of the area of Montagne Blanche and Grand River South East in Mauritius. After a promising beginning within the government, he became more discreet after a couple of months as he remained an inactive member of the Government… Until a recent scandal exploded, where he was denounced by one of his contacts, a certain Latchmee Devi Adheen, aged 26 and jobless young lady living in Quatre Soeurs. Latchmee Devi Adheen was approached by Tarolah during a marriage where both were invited and had a first talk, during which she mentioned that she just came back from USA where she studied but is still jobless. Tarolah proposed to help her having a job at Mauritius Telecom, since he mentioned he had good contacts there who could help her being recruited easily. But the more time goes by, the more their relationship became intense, and they even became virtual lovers, by exchanging sexual pictures, videos and sextos (messages with sexual characteristics) via WhatSapp. But things started deteriorating when Latchmee Devi’s mother, one night by hazard, discovered the messages exchanged between the two protagonists and menaced Tarolah to stop that relationship immediately. Tarolah apologised with Latchmee Devi’s mother on her workplace, but since she persisted expressing her anger and menaces, he used that motto against her and menaced to have her loosing her job! Latchmee Devi came to know about what happened and warned Tarolah not to menace her mother for loosing her job, and this time the menaces went against Latchmee Devi herself! She sued Tarolah at the CCID and showed all the indecent messages he sent to her. However, one week later, a pornographic website regularly consulted by Mauritians published the videos that Latchmee Devi herself did and which were reputed as indecent as the ones that Tarolah exchanged with her! In her version of the facts, Latchmee Devi, after having sued Tarolah and denounced him, only mentioned that he did those videos only with the hope to get a job very quickly and that she didn’t even expect that things would turn in another way since her mother interfered between them when she saw the pictures! Further to that scandal, Tarolah is forced to resign from his functions of Parliamentary Permanent Secretary that he was occupying in the government, but still keeps his position as a deputy in the government. However, what has become Latchmee Devi Adheen after his resignation? Mystery mystery…

3. Showkutally Soodhun

Showkutally Soodhun is the Vice Prime Minister of Mauritius and is the 2nd Member of the Constituency no 15 La Caverne and Phoenix in Mauritius. He was known for having been implied for having expressed some racist and communal words against the Creole Community within the framework of a meeting on some plot of lands in the Bassin Road Area of Quatre Bornes, where he especially attacked the Creole Community there. His racist words were sparked some violent reactions from some Creole manifestants in the streets, as well as on social platforms where the people are defending their belonging into the Creole community beaks and nails. The Prime Minister is aware of those racist words thanks to an anonymous video camera for which the author still remains a mystery. The Prime Minister took some severe sanctions against Showkutally Soodhun, and Soodhun resigned, further to a common agreement with the Prime Minister, from his function of Minister of Housing and Lands and of Vice-Ministers before flying overseas. But this is not all: Showkutally Soodhun was implicated into another scandal during a conference, where he brutally insulted a woman for voicing loudly her opinion against some words that he mentioned against the ex-Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam, since the lady reproached to him to be out of subject in his speech. Showkutally Soodhun violently reacted against her, and accused her of being an Agent of Ex-Prime Minister, before forcing her to leave the Assembly and putting all the rest of the audience against her to humiliate her more.

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In front of those three scenarios, which brought the three public figures to resign from their functions, we have to ask ourselves the question: Who is to be blamed? Should Rutnah, Tarolah and Soodhun be blamed for those actions and words which were supposed to be private, and which have been publicized without their consent, putting their reputation in danger and forcing them to resign and to remain under total anonymity? Should we blame the three women for their guts of expressing their disagreements against those three protagonists, even though one of them, Latchmee Devi Adheen, is more contradictory than the two other women since she also participated into the production and sharing of her own nude pictures with Tarolah, “In the hope of having a job quickly with him?” Should we blame the media and social platforms, since they dared publicizing those “private” matters, thanks to the facilities of technology including social platforms, the web, the Internet in General and telecommunications? Should we blame the government and especially those who work in favor of those three protagonists? All those questions have a common answer: NO. The big culprit in all that matter is this thing that always accompanies us in our daily lives, but which is unfortunately misused by our ancient generations and not always appropriately adapted by the new generation itself: THE SPECTRUM OF POLITICAL ATTITUDE.

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This article is really worth to be read since it clearly defines the different political attitudes that exist in the world like in Mauritius, and I will share a few extracts of it a little further. But before coming on it, we should focus on two things: Politics and Attitude. Also, what is Politics? And what is Attitude? Wikipedia defines the Politics as the Wikipedia, Politics is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state. The Principle of Politics finds its origins from the Ancient Times, In Greek Philosopher Aristotle’s Book Politics, for which there is an interesting summary of different books he wrote about Politics and which were translated in the years 1500 AD in Modern English. The principles of those books are still applied worldwide in different forms but using the same basic. Regarding Attitude, it’s described in the Wikipedia in two contradictory ways, either a positive way as a “settled way of thinking or feeling about something“, or in a negative way especially in North America, as a “truculent and uncooperative behavior“. Now if we put those two items together, then we obtain what the article I shared previously describes as the Spectrum of Political Attitude. I really enjoy the definitions that the Wikipedia mentioned as introduction to that their article to describe Political attitude:

Political attitudes and value orientations are central components of people’s belief systems. … Values are sometimes contrasted with attitudes, which are often defined as a set of beliefs organised around a specific object or situation. (…) They are “Individual’s views about the fundamental nature of human beings, society, and economy; taken together, they comprise the political culture. (…) They are  “Individual’s views and preferences about public policies,political parties, candidates, government institutions, and public officials.” Finally, “These factors and many others that people are introduced to as they grow up will affect their political views throughout the rest of their lives. Political beliefs are often formed during childhood, as parents pass down their ideologies to their children and so on.”

The list of political attitudes is very long, but the most popular ones that are resorted are Radical, Liberal, Moderate, Conservative and Reactionary. But among those terms, one is really worth to be considered and still remains unfortunately absent from Mauritius: Reactionary. The Wikipedia defines this kind of person as “(…) a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (disciplinerespect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society. As an adjective, the word reactionary describes points of view and policies meant to restore the status quo ante.”. In other words, a person who creates a Revolution against the existing political system. The most popular historical fact of Reactionary is the French Revolution, changing the French Absolute Monarchy system as a Republic system under the terms Freedom, Equality, Fraternity, where everyone is free, equal and in agreement with each other in front of the law. In the National Hymn of Mauritius, the same Reactionary spirit also should reside through the national anthem of the country, describing the island “As One People, as One Nation, in Peace, Justice and Liberty”. The same Reactionary spirit also was present when the Father of our Nation, Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, worked hard for having Mauritius being totally independent from the British Colonialism, and a people completely united, regardless to their different walks of life. Unfortunately that unity spirit dropped out after Mauritius became independent since Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam completely bankrupted the country and that the country retrieved itself in extreme poverty. Since he belonged to the Hindu community, then wouldn’t the other Mauritian communities consider his belonging to the Hindu community as a weapon to attack the Hindu community of Mauritius, which represents the majority of the population, with 75% of Mauritians originated from the State of Bihar?

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A good friend of mine once wrote on his timeline on all his social platforms “Behave yourselves, Politicians. The Youth are watching”. Thanks to the progress of our educational system, socio-cultural beliefs and high technology, it’s no more possible to fool the Youngsters compared to our elders’ generations when they were young. Is there a possibility for the Youngsters to rise up courageously and start a new Revolution to build a better Mauritius? YES. It’s possible, and there are already some existing NGOS doing this. One of my sub-blogs is especially dedicated to one of them, which is worth to be talked about and for which you will soon receive regular updates.

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Mauritius: In the roots of a multi-linguistic nation

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This afternoon, through my brand new Twitter account, a compatriot of mine published on his wall a multiple choice question, where Mauritian people were asked in which language they enjoy writing the most. In answer to that multiple choice question, we had choice between English, French, Mauritian Creole and Oriental Language.

Mauritius, as per the details that you will retrieve in that historical complete article, is a widely diversified people composed with people having Creole, Indian, Chinese, French and African origins. Most of the Mauritian population is especially composed with Indians, mostly originated from the states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, with a minority also coming from Punjab. There is also a vast population of Mauritians of Muslim faith as well, of Indo-Pakistani origins. Due to that diversity of cultures, though most of the Mauritian culture finds its inheritance within India, several dialects and languages are spoken. The two official administrative and legal languages used in Mauritius are English and French, especially English, since before being proclaimed independent on 12th March 1968, Mauritius was a British Colony and kept on following the rules based on the British administration and education, especially in public sector. There are also some other dialects spoken in Mauritius, but only within each community. The Chinese Mauritians speak and learn at school their ancestral dialect Mandarin and, for a minority of them, Cantonese as well. The Muslim Mauritians, due to their Indo-Pakistani origins, speak and learn at school Urdu, which is a dialect derived from Arabic in Pakistan, Punjab and Muslim India. Finally, the Indian Mauritians of Hindu faith practice and learn Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Gujarati and Marathi, depending on the state from which they are originated. The White Mauritians mostly practice read, written and spoken French, since for the majority of them, they originate from France, though Mauritius was a British colony. However, the Creole community, originating from Africa, never imported any African dialect of its own (Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa, etc.), and they manage either in English, French or Creole. Regarding the Creole language, we have to put a big plan on it, and also on the Creole community, since there are so many things to shell in them which should be understood by the Mauritian community. Through that blog post, as I promised to my compatriot, I will try my best to answer, in a more constructive way, to his answer regarding the languages we would use to write the most in Mauritius between those four choices.

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English as First Choice. Why?

As I mentioned before, English is the preferred read, written and spoken language within the Mauritian population. It has first of all a coincidence with the fact that before having been proclaimed an Independent country, Mauritius was under British colonization, and all the administration and educational sector was mostly based upon the British rule. Even after its independence, Mauritius still kept the British administrative process, as well in professional life as in the public educational sector. I tried to do some researches about English being the predominant language of the country, even after its Independence in 1968, and that article 14-3 contains a paragraph, which may explain the reason behind this, I quote: “In short, the situation of English in Mauritius seems to be problematic; its existence seems to be a burden rather than a help to the population. However, the situation also has positive aspects and positive arguments can be adduced in favour of the existence of English and its various functions in the independent state (since 1968). Mauritius was an English colony from 1810 till 1968 and since then it has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. English, therefore, has a tradition and a permanent place as the official language and the language of administration, politics and the school system, which is organised on the English model. Apart from these historical facts, its neutrality distinguishes it from French inside the country. For external relations, the role of English as a world language and, above all, as one of the official languages in India is very important. It allows close contact to be kept with the lands of origin of the majority of the population, India and Pakistan – and this is done much more efficiently than would have been possible with the help of the Indian languages, which are now quite clearly declining in Mauritius.” English being a universal language is a sort of mystery for Mauritius, but even for the rest of the world. I have a British French pal, who put his profile picture on his social platforms with a message stipulating “Keep calm and speak English” as he defends English as the universal language spoken worldwide. He once even related me that in England, if you talk to an English person in another foreign language, the very first thing that the English person will ask you in return is to speak English, since he or she defends the native language of his or her country. On that point I give the English native right. I also remember how my little boy struggled a lot at school since his native language was French, whereas he started his scholarship at the International School of Seychelles, where the only language used at school for education is English, and I remember how isolated he was because of the language barrier. His second year teacher in KG1 (FS2 as per the British Curriculum) once cracked my son when my son insisted to speak French with us, telling him very frankly that he had to speak English since he didn’t understand French. Also, my husband and I had to start speaking English with him so that he could adapt quickly within the school environment and activities. Since that day, we didn’t stop speaking English with him, though from time to time, we are used to come back to his native French language. But now, the question I am asking myself is that, if my son’s school he was studying in Seychelles and if my son’s school right now in Abu Dhabi is also an International school, how could it be that the International School of Seychelles follows a British Curriculum, and the actual International School where my son is actually going in Abu Dhabi follows the American curriculum, which resembles a lot to the British one but with more extra-curriculum activities? And how is it that so many International schools, instead of following an International Curriculum with several cultures and languages spoken, mostly follow instead the British Curriculum, and having everything taught in English and not in another language? Here we should interest ourselves mostly to the latest question, since nowadays English is still considered as the global worldwide language. An article answers to that question completely and on that purpose, I am thinking especially about Republic of South Africa during the Apartheid. I remember that last year, my husband and I were visiting Johannesburg with a local guide, and I wrote a very long blog post containing some extracts about the rebellion of students during the Apartheid period and the martyr of student Hector Pieterson, when the Black students were rebelling against learning and practicing of Afrikaans, which was a language imposed by the pro-apartheid government to them, to isolate them from the rest of the population, since they were not given the right to speak, nor to practice English. They rebelled against Afrikaans language, since they were fighting for their right of learning and practicing English as well as every other South African people of ethnicity differing from theirs and considered English to be equally taught for all South Africans. To come back to the Mauritian context, as per the PDF document also stipulated, English as the main language is a tradition which dates from about 200 years ago and which cannot be forgotten. Alike my son, French was my native language, since Creole was forbidden at home, as I came from a very affluent family due to my father who was a Freemason and had a honorable position as the first Anesthetist who started practicing in Mauritius after he completed his 14-year studies in England, Ireland and India. Because I was speaking French, and since we had some relatives settled in France, my mother always wanted me to follow mostly a scholarship based on French Curriculum, and also I have been following my whole primary and secondary scholarship at the Lycee la Bourdonnais, which follows the French Curriculum and which is linked with the French Alliance of Mauritius and the Academy of Reunion Island. In the French curriculum, it was French which was the predominant language, whereas English was learnt as a secondary language. Despite all, I recognize today, though I always cultivated a true passion for English learning since I started learning it in primary school at only the age of 8 years old, how English was indispensable for my daily life, especially in an Anglo-Saxon country like Mauritius and since I have been travelling in several English-speaking countries such as England, Singapore, Malaysia, Republic of South Africa, United Arab Emirates, Canada and Seychelles. during my marriage life and during my teenage years. Today English is helping me a lot for my daily life and even for my son’s education since he goes in an English-speaking International school and must speak English permanently. And today, even when I blog, I favor English for my audience, even though on some of my social platforms I also express myself in my native language French.

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French as second choice. Why?

I found the answer again in the PDF document, and it is linked also with the fact that, due to my family position since I was born, French was spoken at home instead of Creole language. First of all, there is a presence of French Mauritian people in Mauritius, though they represent only 3% of the whole Mauritian population. Here is what the article stipulates again about them, I quote, “The Franco-Mauritians, who represent less than 3% of the total population, are by far the most influential social force in the island, and they continue to play a dominant role in the sugar, manufacturing and tourist industries. This, and the fact that their way of life, and most important, their form of speech is closest to that exemplified by the media, means that they represent an ideal for the “coloured” population, and gradually for the rest of the population, thus exerting a sociolinguistic influence beyond their numerical importance.” But to come on the French language importance, according to that article, here is the extract which explains how French also has its predominant place in the Mauritian population, but mostly as a prestige language than an administrative language:

Despite more than a century and a half of British rule and the imposition of English as an official language, French has maintained its position as the prestige language of Mauritius. Fluency in French is more closely linked to advancement in the social hierarchy, and happens to be indicative of intelligence and good breeding, especially in the eyes of the “General Population”. According to Barnwell and Toussaint (1949), there is considerable evidence to suggest that between 1840-1870, the British administration tried to make the inhabitants of Mauritius native speakers of the English language. But the decisions to anglicise the colony came a bit too late, since French had already established itself as a strong language with the help of the British colonisers themselves. As long as military and political control remained in the hands of the British, they were content to allow the French to remain in a dominant and privileged position. Hence, the French continued to dominate the linguistic and economic life of the island. In 1992, when Mauritius became a parliamentary republic, it remained a member both of the Commonwealth and the ‘Francophonie’.

French language has an evident role to play worldwide, since for so many centuries, France was considered as the heart of the European society, culture, history and monarchy and French language was and is still considered as a prestige language, especially in Mauritius. Like I mentioned before, when I was born, I was taught to always express myself in French and it was badly seen for my parents if I spoke Creole, including with my friends, family members and with even the maids who were working for us at home! A Mauritian who speaks, reads and writes French very well is highly considered as someone literate and cultivated, compared to a Mauritian who has weak knowledge in French, despite having a high knowledge in English as the predominant Mauritian language. In my previous paragraph, the document mentioned Mauritius as a member of the “Francophonie”. It would be interesting to know a little more about the Francophonie and how it appeared worldwide. According to Wikipedia, “The convention which created the Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation (Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique) was signed on 20 March 1970 by the representatives of the 21 states and governments under the influence of African Heads of State, Léopold Sédar Senghor of Senegal, Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia, Hamani Diori of Niger and Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia. The missions of this new intergovernmental organization, based on the sharing of the French language, are the promotion of the cultures of its members and the intensification of the cultural and technical cooperation between them, as well as the solidarity and the connection between them through dialogue. The Francophonie project ceaselessly evolved since the creation of the Agency for Cultural and Technical Co-operation, it became the intergovernmental Agency of the Francophonie (Agence intergouvernementale de la Francophonie) in 1998 to remind its intergovernmental status. Finally in 2005, the adoption of a new Charter of the Francophonie (la Charte de la Francophonie) gives the name to the Agency of international Organization of the Francophonie (Organisation internationale de la Francophonie).[9]“.

Another extract is worth to be known about the missions behind the Francophonie: “The International Organization of the Francophonie leads political actions and multilateral cooperation according to the missions drawn by the Summits of the Francophonie. The Summits gather the Heads of states and governments of the member countries of the International Organization of the Francophonie where they discuss international politics, world economy, French-speaking cooperation, human rights, education, culture and democracy. Actions of the International Organization of the Francophonie are scheduled over a period of four years and funded by contributions from its members.[36] The Charte de la Francophonie defines the role and missions of the organization. The current charter was adopted in Antananarivo, on 23 November 2005. The summit held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso on 26–27 November 2004 saw the adoption of a strategic framework for the period 2004–2014. The four missions drawn by the Summit of the Francophonie are:

  1. Promoting French language and cultural and linguistic diversity.
  2. Promoting peace, democracy and human rights.
  3. Supporting education, training, higher education and scientific research.
  4. Expand cooperation for sustainable development.[36]

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What about the Creole language? Big plan on the Creole language in Mauritius and worldwide

Still referring in the Mauritian context, here is the extract of the PDF article regarding the use of the Creole language in Mauritius, and how Creole language is considered as a cheap language: “The consolidation of Creole has not yet progressed to the point where it could replace English. Besides, it is not (yet) regarded as a fully-fledged language by large sections of the population, and is therefore unlikely to be accepted. The one alternative left is French, the language of the francophone, white section of the population. The language of the sugar industry owned by the Franco-Mauritians remains French. Since the colonial period, this has been the trend. The senior positions in this sector are generally occupied by Franco-Mauritians, who go to great lengths to promote French. According to Benedict (1961), “Franco-Mauritians make a point of using French among themselves, only employing Creole to address servants and employees of low status”. To use Creole in the wrong context is to commit a serious blunder. Therefore, French is used by the sugar sector, both in its oral and written forms. Reports, publications and journals are published in French. However, the mass of the employees of the industry are either sugarcane-cutters or factory workers who either speak Bhojpuri or Creole (the other ethnic languages being restricted to formal classroom contexts). This will therefore decrease the influence of the French language, which remains the language of a minority group.” Frankly speaking, when I read those lines, I am very angry since it reminds me of my own personal experience regarding the Creole language. Since Creole speaking was forbidden at home, except with the maids working for us, I could only start speaking Creole at the age of 9 years old with my very first Creole word, “Ou”, which means “You”. What was funny too was that within both my matriarchal and patriarchal families, everybody was speaking Creole, but there was a glimpse of megalomania within my matriarchal family, since they were all of African Creole origins, since they very often also tended to express themselves in French. Why? Is that a complex of inferiority since they have been underestimated and deprived from their African inheritance since their ancestors were brought as slaves to Mauritius? Only God knows about it. The Creole Community of Mauritius, especially those who come from more rural regions, claim their pride for the Creole culture very openly through their songs, the traditional Mauritian sega music which is an inheritance from the African slaves, who imported that dance and kind of music in the country when they were having fun at night before going to bed. But once more, the sega, though today it became better accepted within the Mauritian culture, was considered as a low kind of music. According to Wikipedia, “Sega was for long looked down upon because it was the music of slaves.[7] It was also looked down upon by the Catholic Church, which was not keen on its association with sexuality and alcohol.[8] Until the Mauritian Ti Frère became popular in the 1960s, sega was only played in private places.[1] A particularly big turning point was his performance at the Night of the Sega at Mount Le Morne on 30 October 1964.[7] It is now considered the national music of Mauritius and not restricted by ethnicity.” It’s very sad though that the Mauritian population considers the Creole community only as descendants of slaves coming from Africa and Madagascar and that their vision about the Creole community stops there and doesn’t go further. It would be interesting to better know more about the Creole population, not only in Mauritius but also worldwide. The extract of that article, though it mostly refers to the History of the Creole people in USA, maybe could better help us understanding the truth behind the diversity of the Creole culture in Mauritius and even in the Seychelles, and completely denies the fact that Creole people are descendants of slaves: “The term Creole was first used in the sixteenth century to identify descendants of French, Spanish, or Portuguese settlers living in the West Indies and Latin America. There is general agreement that the term “Creole” derives from the Portuguese wordcrioulo,which means a slave born in the master’s household. A single definition sufficed in the early days of European colonial expansion, but as Creole populations established divergent social, political, and economic identities, the term acquired different meanings. In the West Indies, Creole refers to a descendant of any European settler, but some people of African descent also consider themselves to be Creole. In Louisiana, it identifies French-speaking populations of French or Spanish descent. Their ancestors were upper class whites, many of whom were plantation owners or officials during the French and Spanish colonial periods. During the eighteenth and nineteenth century, they formed a separate caste that used French. They were Catholics, and retained the traditional cultural traits of related social groups in France, but they were the first French group to be submerged by Anglo-Americans. In the late twentieth century they largely ceased to exist as a distinct group. Creoles of color, the descendants of free mulattos and free blacks, are another group considered Creole in Louisiana.” Furthermore, here is another interesting extract of that same article which is worth to be discovered about the Creole: “With imported furniture, wines, books, and clothes, white Creoles were once immersed in a completely French atmosphere. Part of Creole social life has traditionally centered on the French Opera House; from 1859 to 1919, it was the place for sumptuous gatherings and glittering receptions. The interior, graced by curved balconies and open boxes of architectural beauty, seated 805 people. Creoles loved the music and delighted in attendance as the operas were great social and cultural affairs. White Creoles clung to their individualistic way of life, frowned upon intermarriage with Anglo-Americans, refused to learn English, and were resentful and contemptuous of Protestants, whom they considered irreligious and wicked. Creoles generally succeeded in remaining separate in the rural sections but they steadily lost ground in New Orleans. In 1803, there were seven Creoles to every Anglo-American in New Orleans, but these figures dwindled to two to one by 1830. Anglo-Americans reacted by disliking the Creoles with equal enthusiasm. Gradually, New Orleans became not one city, but two. Canal Street split them apart, dividing the old Creole city from the “uptown” section where the other Americans quickly settled. To cross Canal Street in either direction was to enter another world. These differences are still noticeable today. Older Creoles complain that many young Creoles today do not adhere to the basic rules of language propriety in speaking to others, especially to older adults. They claim that children walk past homes of people they know without greeting an acquaintance sitting on the porch or working on the lawn. Young males are particularly criticized for greeting others quickly in an incomprehensible and inarticulate manner.” As per what I have understood through those extracts, the Creole people have absolutely nothing to do with the fact that they are descendants of slaves. They have several mixed origins, but decided to defend their culture, not by abiding on their ancestors’ culture and rituals, but mostly acting as individualists and free-spirited people. This is exactly that kind of philosophy that the Seychellois people defend, and they don’t even hesitate to make of Creole an official language and culture, as the individualist culture of the Seychellois archipelago. Unfortunately in Mauritius, apart the rural Afro-Creole community who still dares to proclaim the Creole language and culture through engaged artists and activists, Creole is still considered by other communities as a low-class culture and language, and Wikipedia very merely gives details about the expansion of the Creole culture in the island, an explanation which may perhaps be compensated with the previous detailed description of the Creole community from USA. Nonetheless, despite being underestimated as a community and language, Creole is now spoken by almost the whole Mauritian population nowadays. The Creole language still remains informal despite a shy start of its promotion within the educational and literary section as per those two extracts from the WikipediaWikipedia: “The British took over Mauritius during the Napoleonic era, but few English-speakers ever settled there and by then Mauritian creole was firmly entrenched. The abolition of slavery in the 1830s enabled many Mauritian creoles to leave the plantations, and the plantation owners started bringing in Indian indentured workers to replace them. Though the Indians soon became, and remain, a majority on the island, their own linguistic fragmentation and alienation from the English- and French-speaking white elite led them to take up Mauritian creole as their main lingua franca. English and French have long enjoyed greater social status and dominated government, business, education, and the media, but Mauritian creole’s popularity in most informal domains has persisted. (…) The Mauritian government began supporting an orthographic reform in 2011, with a system that generally follows French, but eliminates silent letters and reduces the number of different ways in which the same sound can be written. This was codified in the Lortograf Kreol Morisien (2011) and used in the Gramer Kreol Morisien (2012) as well. It has become standard upon its adoption by the second edition of the Diksioner Morisien (which previously had been spelled as the Diksyoner Morisyen).[4]

I remember having had the opportunity to buy two albums from the adventures of Tintin and Snowy, which Mauritian writer Shenaz Patel translated in Creole. Seeing the Mauritian Creole starting to have its place, not only through the Mauritian sega, but within also the educational sector and Mauritian literature, should have been a pride for us. But yet, despite the efforts made to have the Mauritian Creole language accepted as a part of our local culture instead of an informal language, the Mauritian population still remains very reluctant regarding the use of Creole within families. If I take example on myself, neither my son, nor his elder cousin (my husband’s brother’s son) are allowed to speak Creole in society nor within the family background, even though in both my family and my husband’s family, Creole was always the only language spoken, since according to our elders, they wanted the new generation of children arising to be affluent in both English and French, since those two languages represent the symbol of the well educated Mauritian citizen. Imagine, from that point, my in-laws’ pride when they hear my husband’s nephew speaking French and my son speaking English 😀

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The Oriental language in Mauritius

As I mentioned before, there are several oriental dialects spoken in Mauritius, but which is intern to each community existing in the country: Mandarin and Cantonese by the Sino-Mauritian community, Urdu by the Muslim community, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Gujarati and Marathi within the Hindu community. I will not refer to the extract of that document anymore, but as a Mauritian, I am really stunned seeing that each Asian community learns its own community and ancestral language at school, and that there is no openness of language exchanges between each community. To refer first to the learning of the native language, there is something that I really don’t understand, when I see how the Indian dialects are taught at school: Tamil taught for the Tamil-speaking community, Telugu taught for the Telugu-speaking community, Marathi taught for the Marathi-speaking community, absence of Gujarati and Punjabi learning though there is a minority of Gujarati originated Mauritians in the country, Urdu learning only within the Muslim community… And to crown the whole thing, Hindi taught to the… Bihari community! And not its local dialect Bhojpuri, which is put at the same level as the other dialects in Mauritius! Now, to recapitulate, I don’t understand why there is no Gujarati nor Punjabi taught in Mauritius. There is a small community of Gujarati Hindus in Mauritius, and I know a few of them though they are rare. I also saw some Punjabi people walking in the streets and who were from Mauritius as well. They exist, so why are they deprived from learning Gujarati and Punjabi, and why did those two minorities accept that discrimination passively? Regarding the Urdu language, since it’s derived from Arabic, it’s especially taught within the Muslim community of Mauritius only! How could it be that a language spoken should have a link with the religion? That’s ridiculous! The Holy Bible and the Holy Quran, for example, have been translated in so many languages of the world, including Tamil, Mandarin, and who knows especially for the Holy Bible, maybe also in Arabic in some countries. How is it then that the Holy Scriptures in the Bhagavat Gita and the Ramayana are purely in Sanskrit only and not translated in English for better knowledge of it by non Hindus or non-Hindi speaking people, but instead are re-interpreted in English and French in books written by English-writing and French-writing authors? Finally, the best of all: The underestimation of the Bhojpuri language, which is the local dialect taught in the region of Bihar, where so many Indo-Mauritians proclaim to be originated from… but instead, they learn HINDI at school! Why? Wouldn’t it be better that all the Indian Mauritians learn Hindi as the basic Indian language, and then their own regional dialect in second position, including Gujarati, Punjabi and Bhojpuri? I am very sad to see how the Bhojpuri language has been placed at the same low position as the Creole language in Mauritius, as well as the deprivation of the Bihari culture. The Tamil people included some festivals such as the Thaipoosam Cavadee dedicated to Lord Muruga, one of Lord Shiva’s sons. The Telugu people included the Ugadi festival, which is dedicated to Lord Vishnu. The Marathi people included Gudi Padwa and Ganesh Chathurti, which are typical Marathi celebrations, one of them being dedicated to the Elephant God Ganesha. But where is the true Bihari culture, apart the Bhojpuri songs in Mauritius? All I see are global Hindu festivals celebrated by the Bihari… But not purely Bihari religious festivals nor cultural festivals. See for example that article recapitulating the main festivals celebrated in Bihar. Though most of the festivals celebrated there are generally celebrated in whole India, Bihar also has its specific religious celebrations, such as the Bihula, for example, since “Bihula is a prominent festival of eastern Bihar especially famous in Bhagalpur district. There are many myths related to this festival. People pray to goddess Mansa for the welfare of their family.” Regarding the Gujarati and Punjabi minorities I am sad I couldn’t retrieve anything about them in my researches. That is really sad since they are very close to their traditions, especially songs, dances and wedding celebrations, like as I witnessed when I assisted my neighbors’ children’s weddings, since they were of Gujarati origins. Regarding Punjab, I never saw any Punjabi festivals in Mauritius. But since Indo Mauritians are big fans of Bollywood music and movies, they also fell in love with Punjabi music, especially Banghras, with some Punjabi artists like Yo Yo Honey Singh, Daler Mehndi, Hard Kaur, Bally Sagoo, Sukhbir and so many more, but it stops here. There are no even temples dedicated to the Sikh Guru Nanak for that minority and no one seems even to wander about the existence of that minority in Mauritius. Secondly… Okay, I will mention it, but as the conclusion of my blog post instead.

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CONCLUSION

It’s very sad that each community jealously preserves its culture and ancestral dialect instead of sharing it with other communities, and that is also one of the main reasons why Mauritius still remains prisoner of its chains of Communautarism: I am myself a mixed girl with Afro-Creole, Indian and maybe European origins in my blood. I have been taught, while following the French Curriculum, not only to learn French and English, but also another European language and I chose German. Nonetheless, at school you had German, Spanish, Latin, Russian and Afrikaans which were among the languages  you could learn there and I found that wonderful, especially for the Latin as a classical language. So, if a French school proposed so many languages, including a classical one and an African one, though Afrikaans was considered as a torture language during Apartheid (maybe the school ignores about it and that was why maybe they also proposed it), then why don’t all the Mauritian schools propose ALL the languages to be taught by ALL Mauritians together with English and French… and even include the Mauritian Creole language? That is what I will never agree about… Language is a way of opening your ways to the rest of the world, and if Mauritians only keep on focusing on English, French, Creole and their own community’s dialect, how do they want Communautarism to stop? That’s the question!!! It’s easy for Mauritians to learn new European languages or African dialects, but why don’t they proceed the same with all the actually existing dialects in their own country, which could maybe contribute widely into reducing the communautarism in Mauritius? As a mixed girl, if the opportunity was given to me to do it and if I had the capacities to do it, I would have done it, starting with Hindi as my ancestral patriarchal language before knowing more about Bhojpuri from my Bihari origins and other existing dialects… Including Urdu. My son may perhaps learn Arabic at school and if I need to take some basic Arabic tuition too in UAE, I am ready to do it, not only to help him in his homework but also for my own personal knowledge of knowing a brand new language. Finally, if the chance was given to me to even learn Mandarin and Cantonese too, I would have done it. I am for cultural and social diversity, and one of the basics of that diversity is the diversity of linguistic knowledge. And that conclusion is the final answer to my compatriot’s multiple choice question, though I first answered that I would choose English and French for literature, and Creole only to hang out. I was wrong to reply too quickly since I felt his question required a constructive answer… And I hope I have been convincing enough 🙂

So, before foolishly singing the lyrics of the Mauritian National Anthem “As one people, as one nation, in peace, justice and liberty”, I invite all Mauritian people to meditate on that blog post and reconsider the image of the country.

 

 

 

 

 

I’m never gonna say I’m sorry for one thing: TRUTH!

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Malin and Jenny Cecilia from Ace of Base, performing on music video “Never Gonna Say I’m Sorry” (1996)

 

Click here for the video of the clip “Never Gonna Say I’m Sorry” from Ace of Base

Never gonna say I’m sorry – Ace of Base

I’m never gonna say I’m sorry
I’m a clown for everyone
I’m never gonna let you down,
I’m always here like a sun

I’m a loser, that is a fact for sure
I’m happy even if you don’t want
To invite me out for a dance tonight
I’m not normal, I know it, I don’t care

I’m never gonna say I’m sorry
I’m a clown for everyone
I’m never gonna let you down,
I’m always here like a sun

I’m never gonna say I’m sorry
I’m a clown for everyone
I’m never gonna let you down,
I’m always here like a sun

I’m always here like a sun, I’m always here

Like a ghost I follow your steps so true
You don’t have to bribe me or fill me up
Give me a minute to shine with you
I will make you so happy, make you laugh

I’m never gonna say I’m sorry for the essence of my soul
There’s so many ways to change my life
‘Cause I want to…oh
I’m like a clown, I am fun for everyone…

I’m never gonna say I’m sorry…

I am sharing those lyrics from one of the tunes on which I enjoyed dancing and singing during my teenage years, since I have an important message to spread to all my readers about why I have no regrets, further to the latest blog posts that I recently published on my blog, in which I shared with my readers several fragments of my personal and family life. I admit I may have shocked so many of my readers with my personal views. But I’m never gonna say I’m sorry.

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Why should I be sorry for telling the truth and for revealing to the world the true part of me that no one wants to see, but that everyone needs to see? I remember that a friend of mine very often wrote me that, in our exchanges of emails. People write only to please the audience and to be paid, but there’s nothing true nor sincere in whatever they are writing. Do you remember the text that once I wrote, “Jo March and Proofreading“? This is the typical example of the fake story vs the true story. Remember how her first book she wrote was rejected, despite so many days of hard work from Jo. All this because, though the book was perfectly written, the story was meaningless and not interesting at all. But when Jo’s younger sister Beth passed away, for the first time Jo opened her heart through the lines she wrote within one whole night, and that time her novel was published, because the voice of the heart was there.

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Through that example, that is why, even though I admitted in that post that proofreading is necessary when you sell your book, I am deep inside myself against proofreading. I don’t care whether my English is insufficient. I know that my English is insufficient. But what is worth for my readers? A sincere message written in a poor English? Or a hypocrite message written in a perfect English? I still remember the harsh words from my ex-best friend, who highly criticized me for writing average college English instead of having the English level of her Majesty the Queen! HAHAHAHAHA! WTF again! And what made me laughing was that it made her really sick that I wrote in average English 😀 Sorry for you my dear ex-best friend… I may not write in the perfect English of Her Majesty the Queen, but at least I am showing my true colors… So sorry for you if I caused you disease for being real, but unfortunately I have no cure against that disease I caused to you… Tata bye bye… And get well soon, dear Miss Perfect English!

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Have you heard about the French quote which says “Too polite to be honest?” Yes, we are too polite in society because we have been taught by our parents to be polite since we were born. Yes, we are too well-mannered because we have been taught by our parents to be well-mannered. The mask of politeness and of good manners is in front of everyone’s faces, and perfectly covers people’s true colors.

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I once remembered that my mother told someone those words which today make me smile: “My daughter is polite… But it stops here.” Which means that for her, I am nothing else than an empty canned box which makes a lot of noise, but which has anything inside herself. If that’s her opinion, then it suits me perfectly 🙂 Indeed, you are never judged for what you represent deep inside yourself, but only through the appearance that you show in front of people nah? You judge people and things through what you see, and not with the heart, don’t you? This is whatever lots of people tend to do nowadays, and that’s what encourages a lot of people to wear a mask when they are in public. Why? Because they are scared. They are scared of being true, of being themselves. They are scared about the hearabouts, the critics, or whatever people may think about them. But wait a minute… Who are we to judge others? No one is perfect. Only God can judge us. Only God can determine the good and the bad within each of us. So why should we remain prisoner of that motherf*****g mask of hypocrisy, just to “please people”? Why is that easier for us to wear that mask of torture only to please people? It seems that we are really masochist nah? Because we prefer torturing our true inner self to please other imperfect humans like us… Instead of being true and having the guts to disturb the aura of hypocrite people and hypocrite society. Soooooooo sad!!!

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Madonna – “Truth or Dare” song video

 

 

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Sanctuary of Truth in Pattaya – Thailand

One day, I did some researches and then saw an ancient Indian Folklore about the Blind Men and the Elephant, which, according to that source, “tells the story of six blind sojourners that come across different parts of an elephant in their life journeys. In turn, each blind man creates his own version of reality from that limited experience and perspective. In philosophy departments throughout the world, the Blind Men and the Elephant has become the poster child for moral relativism and religious tolerance.” I saw another interesting source about that link since I saw the picture from the sanctuary of Truth in Pattaya, which was described in that source as “a very special place where Thai culture as well as religion, art and philosophy come together in perfect harmony.” Another proof on how elephant and truth perfectly match together. The statue of the three-headed elephant God known in Thailand as Erawan, which also represents the Hindu God Airavata, and is also a form of representation of the Hindu Trilogy Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Keeper and Mahesh/Shiva the Destroyer, like depicted in that article. As you may have noticed, there are so many philosophies which turn around the link between the truth and the elephant. The articles about the three-headed elephant, and how it’s depicted in several Asian countries and in India coincides with the different perceptions of truth about the elephant from the blind men, for finally agreeing together that it’s an elephant that they have been touching. Each of the team members and bloggers who contribute into developing that interesting news room represents a fragment of that team based on “the truth, and nothing but the truth”, and each of them has a fragment of truth to bring and on which everyone will end by concluding that together, they all built… The Truth. Finally, another detail which came in my mind regarding that link between the truth and the elephant is about a video clip I once saw on YouTube, “Eyes of Truth” from Enigma, which depicts the scene of a young mother who sends her baby on a floating cot on a sacred river to an unknown destination. The mother is seen praying God Surya to protect her child. The child grows up and has an elephant as animal companion, which brings him to a sacred town where he is welcomed with flowers all over his pathway, in the same way Lord Jesus was welcomed as the Messiah in the Town of Jerusalem. After he reaches the soil, the baby is taken under the care of a mother elephant, who will become his animal companion and bring the young boy to a journey, where he will discover at the same time the beauty of Nepal, and also how the human being is destroying its beauty by putting fire in it. At the end of his journey, he is welcomed in that sacred city, where he is worshipped like a God Child, before quietly continuing his journey with the elephant. Truth exists within the eyes of every child, and what is sad is that we all forgot that we had an inner child within us, since we are enrobed in that world of superficiality, lies and hypocrisy every day.

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Moscow and Paris

I remember having recently read an article regarding the unforgettable experience of a French tourist who visited Russia, and who went back to his country with so many Russian friends and wonderful memories, which encouraged him to come back again. And when he came back after several years, though the political relationship between both countries recently deteriorated, his same Russian friends welcomed him with arms wide open and with the same kindness and hospitality, regardless to the political tensions between the two countries. This is another part of truth that we tend to base ourselves on: We base ourselves on what our Leaders are showing us, all this because… The example comes from above. I don’t agree on that point. The example comes from both above and below, and there the example should come from below. If the simple French citizen befriended the simple Russian citizen, then why shouldn’t two political leaders of those same countries take example on their friendship, which is a simple and pure friendship without any bias? This is another example on how the human being, when he becomes popular, makes his life and relationships complicated, whereas a simple truth between that French tourist and his Russian friends could perfectly attract their attention to improve their political relationship, not only for them both, but also for their own nations.

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The VW Factory in Germany

 

Finally, I would like to share with you all another point: One day, I saw an interesting building picture taken in Germany, but which unfortunately I couldn’t retrace back to share it with you. Meanwhile, I saw the one above during my researches, representing the VW factory in Germany, and which was a transparent building. This picture reminded me of another transparent building, maybe one of the rarest ones, that we have in Mauritius, which is our famous Mauritius Commercial Bank Building in Ebene, where you can openly see people working and moving in total transparency, including in the office restaurant on the groundfloor. Based on that fact, it’s time now for our society to change and to be settled on TRUTH BASIC, if we want our little island’s image to be taken as a perfect example of good governance and of good art of living for the Indian Ocean, the African Continent, the Commonwealth and the Rest of the World. So WAKE UP, Mauritius! And never feel sorry for telling the truth. Instead, be sorry for opting for the fake and change yourself. Because like Michael Jackson once sang, “If you wanna make the world a better place, just take a look at yourself, then make a change!”

Saturday Morning in Johannesburg and Soweto – RSA

A DREAMY WEEKEND IN JOHANNESBURG

During the weekend from Friday 01st to Sunday 03rd April 2016, since our son was on holidays in Mauritius with his paternal grandparents, my husband and I decided to spend a weekend in Johannesburg, South Africa. We departed from the Seychelles via an Air Seychelles flight at 09.30.am, local Seychelles time, and we reached Johannesburg after 4 hours of flight, during which we had a good meal on board and I could take some rest, because of my left ear which was causing me pain despite the medicines. But despite that ache, I didn’t care since we landed there. After we collected our luggage, a hotel driver welcomed us and brought us to the Protea Hotel in the province of Gauteng, where we had a wonderful stay, service and meals.

But the most interesting day I had during our short stay in Johannesburg was the whole Saturday morning, during which we roamed in the City Centre of Johannesburg, and also in several unknown places and regions, and we also had the pleasure to discover Soweto for the very first time.

A GLIMPSE ON THE HISTORY OF JOHANNESBURG

We started with a glimpse of the history of Johannesburg, especially known as a land of gold and the birth of the name of the town. The Wikipedia information below confirm whatever the tour operator told us about those two details

The main Witwatersrand gold reef was discovered in June 1884 on the farm Vogelstruisfontein by Jan Gerritse Bantjes that triggered the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the start of Johannesburg in 1886. The discovery of gold rapidly attracted people to the area, making necessary a name and governmental organisation for the area. Johann and Johannes were common male names among the Dutch of that time; two men involved in surveying the area for the best location of the city, Christian Johannes Joubert and Johann Rissik, are considered the source of the name by some. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility. Precise records for the choice of name were lost.[13] Within ten years, the city of Johannesburg included 100,000 people.[17]

In September 1884 the Struben brothers discovered the Confidence Reef on the farm Wilgespruit near present-day Roodepoort, which further boosted excitement over gold prospects. The first gold to be crushed on the Witwatersrand was the gold-bearing rock from the Bantjes mine crushed using the Struben brothers stamp machine. Also, news of the discovery soon reached Kimberley and directors Cecil Rhodes with Sir Joseph Robinson rode up to investigate rumours for themselves. They were guided to the Bantjes camp with its tents strung out over several kilometres and stayed with Bantjes for two nights.

In 1884 they purchased the first pure refined gold from Bantjes for £3000. Incidentally, Bantjes had since 1881 been operating the Kromdraai Gold Mine in the Cradle of Humankind together with his partner Johannes Stephanus Minnaar where they first discovered gold in 1881, and which also offered another kind of discovery – the early ancestors of all mankind.[citation needed] Some report Australian George Harrison as the first to make a claim for gold in the area that became Johannesburg, as he found gold on a farm in July 1886. He did not stay in the area.[18]

Gold was earlier discovered some 400 kilometres (249 miles) to the east of present-day Johannesburg, in BarbertonGold prospectors soon discovered the richer gold reefs of the Witwatersrand offered by Bantjes. The original miners’ camp, under the informal leadership of Col Ignatius Ferreira, was located in the Fordsburg dip, possibly because water was available there, and because of the site’s proximity to the diggings. Following upon the establishment of Johannesburg, the area was taken over by the Government who had it surveyed and named it Ferreira’s Township, today the suburb of Ferreirasdorp. The first settlement at Ferreira’s Camp was established as a tented camp and which soon reached a population of 3,000 by 1887.[17] The government took over the Ferreira’s camp, surveyed it and named it as Ferreira’s Township.[19] By 1896 Johannesburg was established as a city of over 100,000 inhabitants, one of the fastest growth cities ever.

But what we mostly appreciated in that historical part of the city was when the tour guide mentioned that millions of years ago, there was a meteorite which fell on the place where the town of Johannesburg would be born millions of years later, and which brought those particles of gold in that city. But when I checked that information through some personal researches, the only source I could obtain was about the Vredefort Dome, but which didn’t directly concern South Africa: http://www.southafrica.info/about/geography/vredefort-080605.HTML#.VwVF0Pl97IU

We cannot forget about the richness of South Africa without mentioning Paul Kruger, and how he had been defeated since President Thomas Francois Burgers was elected President of South Africa, which brought Paul Kruger to be dismayed and which was one of the reasons of the battle against the Dutch regarding gold and diamond Here are some Wikipedia extracts also regarding the start of the defeat of Paul Kruger: Burgers busied himself attempting to modernise the South African Republic along European lines, hoping to set in motion a process that would lead to a united, independent South Africa. Finding Boer officialdom inadequate, he imported ministers and civil servants en mass from the Netherlands. His ascent to the presidency came shortly after the realisation that the Boer republics might stand on land of immense mineral wealth. Diamonds had been discovered in Griqua territory just north of the Orange River on the western edge of the Free State, arousing the interest of Britain and other countries; mostly British settlers, referred to by the Boers as uitlanders (“out-landers”), were flooding into the region.[71] Britain began to pursue federation of the Boer republics with the Cape and Natal and in 1873, over Boer objections, annexed the area surrounding the huge diamond mine at Kimberley, dubbing it Griqualand West. 

Nonetheless, the visit in general was announced as interesting and enriching, since we had the opportunity to visit several interesting places.

THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF JOHANNESBURG

While we were still in Gauteng, we arrived at the Constitutional Court of South Africa, a historic building fully made with red bricks. The very first thing which captivated my attention was the Flame of Democracy, which, according to the tour guide, remained lit 24/7, with a plaque showing a text illustrating the holiness of that flame of democracy. Here is its meaning I retrieved in an article defining it properly: The 16th of December 2011 marked the 15th anniversary of the signing of South Africa’s new constitution. To commemorate this auspicious occasion, a Flame of Democracy was implemented. The installation is housed at the threshold of the historic Awaiting Trial Toer along its east-west axis to the Constitutional Court entrance – this siting directly references the South African journey toward democracy. Comprising of an eternal flame and column of light – visible throughout the city – their symbolism stands in stark contrast to the doorway of the towers through which prisoners once passed.

I also snapped a wooden column with some sculptures on it, showing some messages derived from sign language from the deaf and mute people, who also had their part of importance in the constitution, and a colourful message in Afrikaans regarding that constitution, for which though I couldn’t retrieve some concrete sources. But to come to the deaf and mute, its importance was illustrated among the main prisoner portraits ornating the wall of the Constitutional Court of Johannesburg and who left their footprint in the history of that wonderful town. Here is the extract of the briefing by Deaf Federation of South Africa, dated 16th February 2007, recognising the South African Sign Language as an Official Language I quote: “The Deaf Federation of South Africa stated that it was approaching the Committee as a suggested first step in its quest to have South African Sign Language recognised as the twelfth official language of South Africa. Deaf SA represented around one million deaf and hard of hearing people in South Africa, for whom sign language was a first language. They were hindered from access because, although deaf schools were now finally teaching sign language, rather than trying to teach speech, and although the Schools Act had granted recognition for education purposes to sign language, it was still not officially recognised, which meant that other departments, institutions, media and facilities did not support such language. Deaf SA tabled other countries where official recognition was given and sought

Members raised questions on what sign language entailed, whether there were dialects, whether the language was universal to all deaf South Africans, and the numbers of profoundly deaf people for whom there were no options other than sign language as a means of communication Several members were concerned about the practical implications of the proposals, particularly for schooling, media and the courts. Questions also addressed access to translators and schools.

The Committee resolved to discuss the matter again in two weeks time. Deaf SA was asked to provide some further details.

The Committee would be meeting with a delegation from the German Parliament on 13 March to discuss the functioning of the Committee and constitutional changes made since 1996. A meeting on the submission proposing an increased Free State legislature would be convened once feedback had been obtained from the Western Cape legislature.

Here were the other prisoners, whose portrait ornates that same wall of prisoners and some references and extracts about their lives and their fight and activism against Apartheid and, for some of them, within the African National Congress (ANC):

– Christian De Wet :

De Wet took an active part in the peace negotiations of 1902. Briefly (30 to 31 May) he took on the role of Acting State President of the Orange Free State, when President Steyn had to leave the negotiations due to illness. De Wet was one of the signatories of theTreaty of Vereeniging. At the conclusion of the war he visited Europe with other Boer generals. While in England the generals unsuccessfully sought a modification of the peace terms concluded in Pretoria. De Wet wrote an account of his campaigns, an English version of which appeared in November 1902 under the title De Stryd tusschen Boer en Brit (Three Years War). In November 1907, he was elected a member of the first parliament of the Orange River Colony and was appointed minister of agriculture. In 1908-9 he was a delegate to the Closer Union Convention.[2]

De Wet was one of the leaders of the Maritz Rebellion which broke out in 1914. He was defeated at Mushroom Valley by General Botha on 12 November 1914, taken prisoner by Colonel Brits on 1 December, and sentenced to a term of six years imprisonment, with a fine of £2000. He was released after one year’s imprisonment, after giving a written promise to take no further part in politics.

De Wet progressively weakened and at length, on 3 February 1922, he died on his farm. General Smuts, who had become Prime Minister, cabled his widow: ‘A prince and a great man has fallen today.’ De Wet was given a state funeral in Bloemfontein and buried next to President Steyn and Emily Hobhouseat the foot of the memorial to the women and children who died in the concentration camps. On the hundredth anniversary of his birth, a bronze equestrian statue, by Coert Steynberg, was unveiled at the Raadzaal in Bloemfontein

– Mahatma Gandhi (more details about his imprisonment in South Africa on http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/mahatma-Gandhi-arrested-first-time)

– Albertina Sisulu, on whom the tour guide said that she was the one behind Mandela’s success: “Sisulu was co-president of the biggest internal anti-apartheid grouping of the 1980s, the United Democratic Front (UDF). Her husband, Walter, the man who brought Nelson Mandela into politics, served as secretary-general of the African National Congress (ANC) before going underground and hiding out at a farm at Rivonia, near Johannesburg, then being captured and sentenced to life imprisonment with Nelson Mandela and other ANC leaders.” . As per what I understood from the tour guide, Sisulu’s house was a secret area in which she was secretly meeting members of ANC and South African Indian Campaign, especially in 1951 (Source: http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/Albertina-sisulu-time line-1918-2011).

– Robert Sobukwe (Source: http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/Robert-sobukwe-overview.HTML#.VwVOFvl97IU): I have no specific extracts to show for that wonderful man since the whole article is worth to be read thanks to his inspirational speeches and quotes.

– Oliver Tambo:

During his early years with the ANC Oliver Tambo was directly responsible for organising active guerrilla units. Along with his cohorts Nelson Mandela, Joe Slovo, and Walter Sisulu; Tambo directed and facilitated several attacks against unarmed civilians. Of which one of the most notable was the Church Street bombing on 20 May 1983, which resulted in the death of 19 civilians and the wounding of a further 217. In submissions to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in 1997 and 1998, the ANC revealed that the attack was orchestrated by a special operations unit of the ANC’s Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), commanded by Aboobaker Ismail. Such units had been authorised by Oliver Tambo, the ANC President, in 1979. At the time of the attack, they reported to Joe Slovo as chief of staff, and the Church Street attack was authorised by Tambo.

The ANC’s submission said that the bombing was in response to a South African cross-border raid into Lesotho in December 1982 which killed 42 ANC supporters and civilians, and the assassination of Ruth First, an ANC activist and wife of Joe Slovo, in Maputo, Mozambique. It claimed that 11 of the casualties were SAAF personnel and hence a military target. The legal representative of some of the victims argued that as administrative staff including telephonists and typists they could not accept that they were a legitimate military target.

Ten MK operatives including Aboobaker Ismail applied for amnesty for this and other bombings. The applications were opposed on various grounds, including that it was a terrorist attack disproportionate to the political motive. The TRC found that the number of civilians versus military personnel killed was unclear. South African Police statistics indicated that 7 members of the SAAF were killed. The commission found that at least 84 of the injured were SAAF members or employees. Amnesty was granted by the TRC.

– Albert Luthuli :

Awarded the Nobel Peace Price in 1960, Luthuli was allowed to travel to Oslo to receive the award the following year.

In his acceptance speech on 10 December 1961, Luthuli said: “It can only be on behalf of the people of South Africa, all the people of South Africa, especially the freedom-loving people, that I accept this award, that I acknowledge this honour. I accept it also as an honour not only to South Africa, but for the whole continent of Africa …

“Quite long ago my forefathers extended a hand of friendship to people of Europe when they came to that continent. What has happened to the extension of that hand only history can say, and it is not time to speak about that here, but I would like to say, as I receive this Price of peace, that the hand of Africa was extended. It was a hand of friendship, if you read history.”

In his Nobel lecture, delivered at the University of Oslo on the following day, Luthuli said: “How easy it would have been in South Africa for the natural feelings of resentment at white domination to have been turned into feelings of hatred and a desire for revenge against the white community.

“Here, where every day, in every aspect of life every nonwhite comes up against the ubiquitous sign ‘Europeans Only’ and the equally ubiquitous policeman to enforce it – here it could well be expected that a racialism equal to that of their oppressors would flourish to counter the white arrogance toward blacks.

“That it has not done so is no accident. It is because, deliberately and advisedly, African leadership for the past fifty years, with the inspiration of the African National Congress, which I had the honour to lead for the last decade or so until it was banned, had set itself steadfastly against racial vain gloriousness.

“We know that in so doing we passed up opportunities for an easy demagogic appeal to the natural passions of a people denied freedom and liberty; we discarded the chance of an easy and expedient emotional appeal.

“Our vision has always been that of a nonracial, democratic South Africa which upholds the rights of all who live in our country to remain there as full citizens, with equal rights and responsibilities with all others. For the consummation of this ideal we have laboured unflinchingly. We shall continue to labour unflinchingly.”

At the end of his lecture, after much applause, Luthuli sang the African anthem, “Nkosi sikelel’ iAfrika”.

On 21 July 1967, while taking a walk near his Natal home, Luthuli was killed, reportedly when he was struck by a train.

– Joe Slovo:

Slovo was a leading theoretician in both the SACP and the ANC. In the 1970s he wrote the influential essay No Middle Road which stated that the apartheid government would be unable either to achieve stability or to co-opt significant sections of the small but growing black middle class – in other words the only choice was between the overthrow of apartheid or ever greater repression. At the time the SACP’s orthodox pro-Soviet and stage-ist view of change in South Africa was dominant in the ANC-led liberation movement.

Being Jewish and a Communist, Slovo was a demonised figure on the far right of Afrikaner society.

In 1989, he wrote “Has Socialism Failed?” which acknowledged the weaknesses of the socialist movement and the excesses of Stalinism, while at the same time rejecting attempts by the left to distance themselves from socialism. Slovo died in 1995 of cancer. In 2004 he was voted 47th in the Top 100 Great South Africans.

It was he who in 1992 proposed the breakthrough in the negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa with the “sunset clause” for a coalition government for the five years following a democratic election, including guarantees and concessions to all sides.

After the elections of 1994 he became Minister for housing in Nelson Mandela‘s government, until his death in 1995. His funeral was attended by the entire high command of the ANC, and by most of the highest officials in the country, including both Nelson Mandela and Thabo Mbeki.

– Fatima Meer:

In 1946, Meer joined many other South African Indians in a passive resistance campaign against apartheid, during which she started the Student Passive Resistance Committee. She also helped to establish the Durban District Women’s League, an organisation started in order to build alliances between Africans and Indians as a result of the race riotsbetween the two groups in 1949.

After the National Party gained power in 1948 and started implementing their policy of apartheid, Meer’s activism increased; she was one of the founding members of the Federation of South African Women, which spearheaded the historical women’s march on the Union Buildings on 9 August 1956. As a result of her activism, Meer was first “banned” in 1952 (“banning” was a government practise that, among other things, limited the number of people a person could meet at any one time as well as a person’s movements and also prohibited a person from being published).[citation needed]

In the 1960s, she organised night vigils to protest against the mass detention of anti-apartheid activists without trial. During the 1970s she was again banned and later detained without trial for trying to organise a political rally with Black Consciousness Movement figure Steve Biko. She narrowly survived an assassination attempt shortly after her release from detention in 1976 when she was shot at her family home in Durban, but luckily not harmed. Her son, Rashid, went into exile in the same year. She was attacked again and blamed the second attack on the Black Consciousness Movement.[3]

She was a strong supporter of the Iranian Revolution and boycotted Salman Rushdie‘s trip to South Africa in 1998 claiming that he was a blasphemer.

– Sheila Weinberg

Weinberg was involved in her parents’ activism from an early age. She painted slogans and was involved in ANC and SACP activities after the organisations were banned in 1960. Both parents suffered periods of detention and exile for their political activities and during this time the young Weinberg was looked after by another activist, Helen Joseph.

In 1964, Weinberg was detained for the first time and held at the Johannesburg Fort prison under the 90 day Detention Act. At 19 years old, she was the youngest detainee in South Africa at the time. With her mother in a cell close by, Weinberg was held for 65 days and released without charge. She later served a jail term for painting a pro-ANC slogan on a public building.

– Lilian Ngoyi

She joined the ANC Women’s League in 1952; she was at that stage a widow with two children and an elderly mother to support, and worked as a seamstress. A year later she was elected as President of the Women’s League. On 9 August 1956, Ngoyi led a march along with Helen JosephRahima MoosaSophia Williams-De BruynMotlalepula ChabakuBertha Gxowa and Albertina Sisulu of 20,000 women to the Union Buildings of Pretoria in protest against the apartheid government requiring women to carry passbooks as part of the pass laws.

Lilian Ngoyi was also a transnational figure who recognised the potential influence that international support could have on the struggle against apartheid and the emancipation of black women. With this in mind she embarked on an audacious (and highly illegal) journey to Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1955 to participate in the World Congress of Mothers held by the Women’s International Democratic Federation (WIDF). Accompanied by her fellow activist Dora Tamana, and as an official delegate of FEDSAW, she embarked on a journey that would see an attempt to stow away on a boat leaving Cape Town under “white names”, defy (with the help of a sympathetic pilot) segregated seating on a plane bound for London and gain entry to Britain under the pretext of completing her course in bible studies. With Tamana, she would visit England, Germany, Switzerland, Roumania, China and Russia, meeting women leaders often engaged in left-wing politics, before arriving back in South Africa a wanted woman.[6]

Ngoyi was not an intellectual, rather she was known as a strong orator and a fiery inspiration to many of her colleagues in the ANC. She was arrested in 1956, spent 71 days in solitary confinement, and was for a period of 11 years placed under severe bans and restrictions that often confined to her home in Orlando, Soweto.

– Nico Smith

In 1981, Smith could no longer keep his membership in the Afrikaner Broederbond in good conscience. He quit, and compared it to social suicide — many of his “friends” suddenly wanted nothing to do with him.[1] Smith began aggressively challenging apartheid in his classes, which drew the ire of his superiors who wanted him to “Teach theory, not conclusions.”[1] Smith joined public protests against the government’s bulldozing of squatter shacks in Cape Town, and he was called before a church commission to justify himself. Smith decided to resign his professorship and leave the DRC to join its separate coloured branch, the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa. Smith, together with his wife Ellen, became an anti-apartheid activist from that point onward. He began preaching in Mamelodi in 1982, a suburb of Pretoria designated for non-whites only at the time due to theGroup Areas Act. Smith eventually received rare permission from the South African government to live there in 1985, making him and his wife the only whites allowed to live in the area.[2] In Mamelodi, he not only acted as minister, but also as a community organiser and civic planner.[1] To encourage integration and interaction between the separated communities, he organised a further swap in 1988 — 170 whites moved into Mamelodi to live with black families, while 35 blacks lived in white homes in the suburbs of Pretoria. The exchange lasted four days.[2] At the time, few whites knew how blacks lived due to strict segregation rules. Black neighbourhoods were avoided and perceived as dangerous. Smith explained that he ran the swap because “White fear is one of the great barriers to understanding and progress in this country… But over the past two years there has been an increasing realisation by whites of the depth and the degree of black anger.”[3] The swap was attacked as “designed to promote Marxist doctrine”,[4] as nearly any opposition to apartheid was called a communist plot to destabilise the country. Smith also demanded an investigation into suspicious murders of anti-apartheid activists.[5]

In 1989, he moved back to a white suburb of Pretoria.[2] Smith’s South African model of the in-home meal and story sharing earned the 1989 Beyond War Award,[6] and inspired the sustained Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Dialogue Group in the United States.

– Finally, Nelson Mandela, the most popular of all, for which there is a complete article I am proposing and which is worth being read fully: http://www.morningsidecenter.org/teachable-moment/lessons/nelson-Mandela-fight-against-apartheid

After I snapped those pictures, I paid attention on a sculpture, “History” made by South African artist Dumile Ferni. I didn’t really have any information regarding that sculpture, but the way it has been made is a representation of the tragic part of apartheid, during which the Whites were dominating the Non Whites, treating them like animals, like that Black man pulling a chariot on which two uptown men, who seemed to be white men, were comfortably sitting. Regarding the artist himself, here are some interesting extracts I found on that link and how, through his masterpieces, he became a visionary of the tragedy behind apartheid (Source: http://www.sahistory.org.za/people/dumile-feni): ”

Described while in Johannesburg as the ‘Goya of the townships’, Dumile found his subject matter in the life and events he observed around him. Working primarily with graphic art in monochromatic hues, the artist had the ability and vision to transform the particular into the universal. His works also reflect his deep love of music, especially jazz. And even the disposition of the figures on the page is invested with musical rhythm.

Dumile was also an exceptionally gifted sculptor, skill that is clearly expressed in his art. Though executed entirely in a linear fashion, many of his drawings have a profound sculptural quality. The Study for the portrait of Albert Luthuli is an excellent example of this. It does not attempt to depict the final three-dimensional sculpture; instead, the drawing itself has intrinsic attributes to sculpture.

Albert Luthuli was a Zulu chief, teacher and religious leader that became president of the African National Congress from 1952 to 1967, and was the first African winner of the Nobel Peace Price for his efforts in waging a non-violent campaign against racial discrimination in South Africa. While in London, Dumile began working on this subject. Eventually he completed at least a drawing and two bronzes of this African icon. Dumile’s portraits are not conventional. And the Luthuli project is no exception. Rather than depicting naturalistic likeness, both the drawing and the sculptures are symbolic portraits of a great leader and a wise and noble man.

Dumile succeeded in imbuing his work with feelings of deep sympathy and humanity. As Justice Albie Sachs has pointed out, Dumile’s work embodies the ideals and values which we cherish in a democratic South Africa and which are enshrined in our Bill of Rights.

Then, we came inside the Constitutional Court, and one detail which astonished me was the representation of the chart of “Justice under a tree”. According to my personal researches, I found a small extract where the tree logo was chosen as a symbol of protection alike the constitution, I quote: (Source: http://www.constitutionalcourt.org.za/site/thecourt/thelogo.htm)

It depicts people sheltering under a canopy of branches – a representation of the Constitution’s protective role and a reference to a theme that runs though the Court, that of justice under a tree. The idea comes from traditional African societies: this was where people would meet to resolve disputes.

(…)

The symbol chosen in the end was the tree – something that protects, just like the Constitution. But this tree does not stand alone in the logo: it is sheltering people who have gathered under its branches.

Initially, it seemed, there were two options: people or a tree. Now it became one concept: a crowd of people standing beneath the tree, encapsulated in a circle. The department of public works then turned Parton’s logo into the large brass relief plaque that is now a compelling feature of the building.

Maybe this is why there are some benches inside the court, made with small tree trunks to symbolise that tree. According to the tour guide, the tree chosen was the baobab but I couldn’t find some sources to justify the nature of that tree. What also attracted my attention was the way the constitutional court was made with those old red bricks. According to Wikipedia, I quote: “The court building itself was built using bricks from the demolished awaiting-trial wing of the former prison.” (Source: HTTP://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_Hill,_Johannesburg#The_Constitutional_Court )

No one can really explain why the red bricks were chosen to build the Constitutional Court, but according to my conversation with the tour guide on that subject, maybe it was because of the bloodshed spread by all the prisoners and victims of apartheid that the red colour was chosen. Yet it remains an interesting point on which we should focus later.

Another detail caught my attention, regarding a small plaque on which it was written about the songs sung by the prisoners of the Old Fort Prison Complex near the Constitution Hill. According to that extract, I quote, Communal Cells: Overcrowded, dirty and badly ventilated cells lit by a small window only, was only a part of the brutal detention conditions. Ironically as authorities tried to break prisoners down, these communal cells became an area to build courage and discuss resistance including singing resistance songs to entertain, comfort and maintain solidarity. This was also used to defy the authorities.

THE OTHER FACADE OF JOHANNESBURG THAT TOURISTS DON’T WANT TO SEE, AND WHICH IS A SAD REALITY EXISTING

When we left the Constitutional Hill, we continued our town roaming and then the driver sent us to Hillbrow, a residential city near Johannesburg. I was very shocked seeing the contrast between the luxury of the multi-cultural areas of Johannesburg, with the extreme disorder and poverty within that city, for which most of the immigrants are illegal ones from other African countries such as Rwanda, Nigeria, etc, and who also live and operate in that city as illegal workers. I remember even, for example, about the tour guide who mentioned the Nigerian immigrants of that suburb mostly known for prostitution traffic there. Here are some extracts I found regarding Hillbrow’s story:

Hillbrow is an inner city residential neighbourhood of JohannesburgGauteng ProvinceSouth Africa. It is known for its high levels of population density, unemployment, poverty and crime.

In the 1970s it was an Apartheid-designated “whites only” area but soon became a “grey area”, where people of different ethnicity lived together. It acquired a cosmopolitan and politically progressive feel, and was one of the first identifiable gay and lesbian areas in urban South Africa. However, due to poor planning its infrastructure could not cope with the rapid population growth.[2] This, together with lack of investment led to an exodus of middle class residents in the 1980s and the decay of major buildings, leaving in its wake an urban slum by the 1990s.[3]

Today, the majority of the residents are migrants from the townships, rural areas and the rest of Africa, many living in abject poverty. An urban regeneration programme is underway. There are street markets, mainly used by local residents, and the Johannesburg Art Gallery contains work by major local artists including William Kentridge(Source: HTTP://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillbrow)

We also discovered some other curious details a few miles after Hillbrow which attracted our attention. Among them:

– Tekkie Town, a big shopping mall proposing great brands but for affordable prices: http://www.tekkietown.co.za/

– Markham Building (Source: HTTP://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markham_Building)

– The First National Bank (Source: HTTP://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_National_Bank_(South_Africa))

At about the same time, the government of the South African Republic desired to create a local commercial bank, due to the discovery of gold in Barberton and theWitwatersrand. The government thus created a bank through a concession agreement. The task of the bank was to focus primarily on financing agricultural development. A state mint was also established as part of the concession. The National Bank der Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek Beperk (National Bank of the South African Republic Limited) was registered in Pretoria in 1891 and opened its doors for business on 5 April of the same year. After the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Boer War in 1902, the name of this bank was changed to the National Bank of South Africa Limited.

Due to another recession, the Bank of Africa was bought out by the National Bank in 1912, which had already bought out another bank, the National Bank of the Orange River Colony in 1910. The Natal Bank, which was founded in 1854 to fund the Natal Colony‘s sugar industry, also suffered financial difficulties and was taken over in 1914. By this time, the National Bank was now one of the strongest and largest banks in South Africa.

– The Star Newspaper (Source: HTTP://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Star_(South_Africa) )

We also drove all over a big sight seeing of gold mines. Among them, the Witwatersrand. I am very happy to write those lines there, since contrary to the beginning of what I wrote before, I didn’t find any concrete researches regarding the meteorite which exploded on that part of South Africa. But here are two extracts I retrieved and which explains the start of existence of gold and other minerals in those mining sites:

1) The vast majority of the Earth’s gold and other heavy metals are locked up in the earth’s core. Evidence from tungstenisotope studies indicates that most gold in the crust is derived from gold in the mantle which resulted from a meteoritebombardment some 3900 million years ago (i.e. at approximately the time that the Kaapvaal craton formed). The gold bearing meteorite events occurred millions of years after the segregation of the earth’s core.[9] The gold in the Witwatersrand Basin area was deposited in Archean river deltas having been washed down from surrounding gold-rich greenstone belts to the north and west. Rheniumosmium isotope studies indicate that the gold in those mineral deposits came from unusual 3000 million year old mantle-derived intrusions known as komatiite, present in the greenstone belts. 

2) Although gold had been discovered in various locations in South Africa, such as Barberton and Pilgrim’s Rest, as well as at several sites near the Witwatersrand, these were alluvial concentrates in contemporary rivers, or in quartz veins, in the form that gold had always been found elsewhere on earth. When George Harrison, probably accompanied by George Walker, found gold on the farm Langlaagte, 5 km west of the city of Johannesburg, in an outcrop of conglomerate rocks, in February 1886, they assumed that this was alluvial gold in an old riverbed, that had been tilted as a result of earth movements.[1][2] However, when it was found that, traced down dip, the conglomerate was not merely developed for the narrow width of a river, but continued in depth, there came the realisation that this conglomerating zone was part of a sedimentary succession.[1] Harrison had stumbled on the Main Reef conglomerate (part of the “Johannesburg Subgroup” of rocks — see illustration above). The conglomerate was quickly traced east and westward for a total continuous distance of 50 km to define what became known as the “Central Rand Gold Field”.

Harrison declared his claim with the then-government of the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek (ZAR), and in September 1886 President Paul Kruger issued a proclamation declaring nine farms public mining diggings, starting on 20 September 1886.[2] This heralded the historic Witwatersrand Gold Rush. Harrison is believed to have sold his claim for less than £10 before leaving the area, and he was never heard from again. Harrison’s original “Zoekers” (in English: seeker’s, or prospector’s) Claim No 19 was declared a national monument in 1944, and named Harrison’s Park.[11] The park is on the busy Main Reef Road, immediately west of Nasrec Road.[2] In 1887 Cecil John Rhodes registered “The Gold Fields of South Africa” in London, South Africa’s first mining house, with a capital of £250 000. His brother Thomas was the first chairman.

– Another place which is worth to be discovered, the 11 Diagonal Street Building of Gauteng. The most interesting aspect behind the history of that building is summarised in that extract, I quote: Diagonal Street and its surrounds developed into a racially mixed area in which trading continued despite the prescriptive Gold Law of 1908 and the Asiatic Land Tenure and Trading Amendment Act of 1919, which restricted land acquisition, trading and occupancy rights. Lack of enforcement of these laws was partly due to the fact that the town centre had shifted eastwards towards Rissik and Eloff streets, allowing marginalised races and religions to create the eclectic culture of Diagonal Street. (Source: http://www.gauteng.net/attractions/diagonal_street)

– The SAB World Beer (Source: http://www.worldofbeer.co.za/experiences/category/the-tour ) relating the history of beer worldwide and then in South Africa. The most details regarding South African beers will mostly been retrieved by booking for a tour from that site. But you can meanwhile find more details about the South African beer by clicking on the “More Info” under the paragraphs “Green Fields”, “Beer in the Cape”, “Heritage Hall” and “Soweto Shebeen”. While visiting Soweto, as per my notes you will retrieve later, the tour guide gave us a dark version about the damages that the Soweto Shebeen was causing to the Soweto population. However, I haven’t really understood the tour guider’s explanations about the local beer but according to what I understood, and what I need to check afterwards, there was a time where Soweto people were consuming a beer which was made with Soka, and that product was causing some disorders and brought people into committing violence. But I couldn’t find any information justifying that piece of information the tour guide shared with us, unless I come back to Johannesburg for more clearings about that point. But I found some information regarding the illegal shebeens the tour guide mentioned about and still illegally operating in Soweto by Shebeen queens (Source: HTTP://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shebeen#South_Africa)

Before we reached Soweto, the tour guide mentioned about Gauteng being a point of departure for Johannesburg people as a place of gold, as conclusion for what we already visited. Here is an extract about the province of Gauteng from which the capital city Johannesburg detains its incredible richness, not only for gold but also when it comes on lifestyle, education, economy, etc, I quote:

With a total area of 16 548 square kilometres, Gauteng is slightly smaller than the US state of New Jersey. While it’s the country’s smallest province, it has the largest population, and by far the highest population density – around 675 people per square kilometre. (The Northern Cape, by comparison, has an average of around three people per square kilometre.)

A summer-rainfall area, Gauteng has hot summers and cold winters with frost. Hail is common during summer thunderstorms.

The people of Gauteng have the highest per capita income level in the country. The province blends cultures, colours and first and third-world traditions in a spirited mix, flavoured by a number of foreign influences. The world’s languages can be heard on the streets and in offices, from English to Mandarin, Swahili, French, German and more.

The province has the most important educational and health centres in the country. Pretoria boasts the largest residential university in South Africa, the University of Pretoria, and what is believed to be the largest correspondence university in the world, the University of South Africa, or Unisa.

Most of South Africa’s research and development takes place in Gauteng, which is home to many of the country’s core biotechnology companies. Leading research institutions such as the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, the Agricultural Research Council and the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute are based there.

Although the province is highly urbanised and industrialised, it contains wetlands of international importance, such as Blesbokspruit near Springs.

And it’s home to the Cradle of Humankind, one of South Africa’s eight UNESCO World Heritage sites. The region of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai and environs has one of the world’s richest concentrations of hominid fossils, evidence of human evolution over the past 3.5-million years.

SOWETO: SOWETO GO NOW (SO WHERE TO GO NOW?) ?

Our tour guide was the very first person who taught us that slogan “Soweto go now?” which is a parody of “So, where to go now?” But I don’t really remember what he meant through that quote and couldn’t find any information behind that slogan. Nonetheless, here are some interesting points that we have discovered about Soweto, for which you can retrieve those complete details on HTTP://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soweto .

Through that Journey to Soweto, we have learnt a lot of interesting facts which really make of Soweto a rich destination:

– The first thing we snapped when we arrived there was a sort of electric central in the shape of a freestanding house, but when I did more researches about it, I didn’t find anything and I hope to have more clearing about it during my next trip to Soweto. However, regarding the Soweto Power Plant also known as the Orlando Power Station, according to our tour guide, it was one of the monuments which was messed by the students during apartheid, since they were protesting to learn English and not Afrikaans, since that language was a symbol of South African discrimination, but I haven’t found any sources justifying that information.

– As we are mentioning about the student rebellions during Apartheid, as I wrote previously, according to our tour guide, the Black students of South Africa wanted to learn English but they didn’t have the right to learn English and were forced to learn Afrikaans language instead, like written in that extract, I quote (Source: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/south-Africa/language-policy-and-oppression-south-Africa)

In 1955, a policy of teaching in both English and Afrikaans on a 50-50 basis in the secondary schools was adopted. However, the shortage of black teachers proficient in Afrikaans (all teacher training schools for blacks are in English) allowed this policy to be carried out in only 26% of the schools. In 1976 the black Africans’ hatred of apartheid, and of Afrikaans as the “language of the oppressor,” came to a head in Soweto, a black “township” outside of Johannesburg. A school board there was dismissed in early February for resisting the imposition of Afrikaans. Protest began at that school and swelled over a period of months to the other schools, with the support of teachers, parents, and students.

On 16 June, 15,000 students marched in the streets carrying banners with such slogans as “Blacks are not dustbins – Afrikaans stinks.” At one point police opened fire on a group of these students starting a chain of violence in Soweto that lasted some months and left 172 blacks, many of them in their teens, killed by police bullets. The revolt touched almost every city and village in South Africa that year, reaching far beyond the language issue. Strikes closed businesses and industry, and in Soweto, the government-instituted Bantu Council was forced to resign.

But it seemed that the rebellion of students against Afrikaans learning was still getting on, even after end of Apartheid, like demonstrated in that video on the link http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/09/south-African-students-protest-Afrikaans-150902065344452.HTML. What is crazy, though, is that while South African students protest against Afrikaans learning, other countries are fond of wanting to learn that language, which they consider as the easiest language they ever learnt in life, like demonstrated in that article on link http://www.pagef30.com/2010/12/why-Afrikaans-is-also-easiest-language.HTML. I even saw a forum discussion on the link http://www.justlanded.com/English/South-Africa/Forums/Language/learn-Afrikaans and what was very shocking was about the ignorance of people behind their will of learning Afrikaans. It reminded me about a school friend of mine who was preparing her Baccalaureate exam in Linguistics and who chose Afrikaans as an additional subject for her exams. The question that I am asking myself though, though I didn’t find any sources on Google about that matter: The fact that foreign people want to learn Afrikaans without knowing about the tragic history behind the Afrikaans language, is that purely ignorance or is that directly or indirectly a sort of insult and offense to the Black South African people?

One of the biggest monuments and sites to visit regarding the students protests against Afrikaans and where we would end our trip later would be the Hector Pieterson Memorial. But before going there, the tour guide, still within the framework of the students rebellion against Afrikaans language, showed us two other monuments which were damaged by the students during the rebellion. The first one was the Regina Mundi Catholic Church of Soweto, which, according to the tour guide, was used by students for boycotting instead of going to school, like demonstrated in that extract, I quote ):

Regina Mundi played a pivotal role in the struggle against apartheid in the second half of the 20th century.[2] Since political meetings in most public places were banned, the church became the main place where Soweto people could meet and discuss. Even funerals often ended up as political meetings. For this reason, Regina Mundi earned the reputation of being one of the main centres of anti-apartheid activism in the province of Gauteng.[1]

During the Soweto uprising of June 16, 1976, when students were shot by the police in Orlando West (with Hector Pieterson and others being killed), many demonstrants fled to Regina Mundi. The police entered the church, firing live ammunition. No one was killed, although many were injured and the church itself, as well as its furniture, decorations, and symbols (for example the marble altar and the statue of Christ), were damaged. Both the interior and the external walls of the church still bear the signs of the shootings.[1]

After the end of apartheid, from 1995 to 1998, several meetings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission were held in the church, presided over by Archbishop Desmond Tutu.[1] From 1995 on, funds were raised to restore the church. The campaign eventually collected 1.5 million rands, and restorations were made.[2]

The events of 1976 are commemorated by a dedicated ceremony held in the church every year on June 16.

However, when we came in front of the Regina Mundi Catholic Church, I forgot to ask the tour guide why the name of that church was Regina Mundi. But when I came back home, I retrieved a link expaining the origin of that name, the Regina Mundi being the Latin name for the Mother of the People. It was mostly symbolized by a painting made by artist Laurence Larry Sculy, “The Madonna and the Child of Soweto”, or simply “The Black Madonna”: http://interfaithmary.net/pages/Soweto.htm

Next to the Regina Mundi Catholic Church, I snapped a picture on a wall showing the extract of the Rivonia Treason Trial dated 20th April 1964 saying, I quote: “I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.” As usual this detail arose my curiosity and I did some researches about Rivonia Treason Trial and found that link which explains everything, focussing mostly on the last paragraph, for which the lines written on that wall represent the final conclusion of which would become later a reality for Nelson Mandela after his release from Robben Island: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_Am_Prepared_to_Die. That speech was of a duration of 3 hours and was prepared further to which he was saved by 3 people from death penalty: George Bisos, the Greek who saved Nelson Mandela (Source: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2013/12/06/the-greek-who-saved-nelson-mandela/), Arthur Chaskalson (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Chaskalson#Career) and Bram Fischer, for whom Mandela paid tribute after his death in 1975 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bram_Fischer#Tributes). But despite having mentioned only about those 3 men, I saw 4 other additional men who were behind Mandela’s defence during the Rivonia Treason Trial and who are nonetheless worth to be known as well: Joel Joffe (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_Joffe,_Baron_Joffe), Harry Schwarz (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Schwarz#Mandela_prison_visitAfter the 1964 Rivonia Trial, where Schwarz had been on the defence team and where his university friend Nelson Mandela was imprisoned, Schwarz was barred from gaining access to Mandela.[33] However, after Mandela was moved to Victor Verster Prison, various restrictions were lifted upon Mandela, including more lenient visitation rights. On 23 November 1989, Schwarz, following a request from Mandela, visited him in prison.[34] After his visit, Schwarz called for the “immediate and unconditional” release of Mandela, stating that this was “in the interest of all South Africans – black and white – that this should happen as soon as possible”.), Vernon Berrange (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernon_Berrang%C3%A9#The_Treason_Trial) and Harold Hanson (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Hanson). According to the tour guide, Nelson Mandela acted as a spy in disguise to collect information and was living in a farm which was the headquarter of the ANC. The tour guide added that Nelson Mandela went to Europe to get some help and came back to South Africa via Morocco and Ethiopia, and then was arrested when he landed in South Africa. Regarding Mandela spying, I didn’t retrace any proofs aout what the tour guide told us, but I retraced a Wikipedia document about the Liliesleaf Farm in Northern Johannesburg, which was the secret place where Mandela was operating secretly and maybe spying (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liliesleaf_Farm) But I also saw some sources certifying that there were some foreign agents who operated and prepared Nelson Mandela to come to government and into his spying, such as Niel Bernard (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niel_Barnard), Israeli Mossad Spy Agency (Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/document-israeli-mossad-spy-agency-trained-young-mandela/2013/12/23/9979bc7e-6c1a-11e3-aecc-85cb037b7236_story.html) and the MI6 Headquarters in Brintain, for which Mandela denied the idea of being a MI6 man nor requesting their help into foiling assassination attempts (Source: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2000/mar/23/nelsonmandela)

To come back to the rebellion of students against Afrikaans language, the tour guide showed us a police station with a green roof from afar while driving, where students used to manifest during apartheid. I don’t have any documentation regarding that police station, but maybe the link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_African_Police#Upholding_apartheid will better explain the involvement of the police force during apartheid.

– When we ended our roaming by visiting the Hector Pieterson Memorial, unfortunately we were not allowed to take pictures inside the museum but I could take a few pictures out of the memorial place and retrieved some rich documentation regarding that young hero, among them the Hector Pieterson memorial (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hector_Pieterson_Museum), the young hero Hector Pieterson himself who died in martyr during the student rebellion against Afrikaans language (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hector_Pieterson) and the Soweto uprising (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soweto_uprising). But while doing researches, I found a very interesting document about Hector Pieterson’s mother and her decision to forgive what happened to her late son Hector Pieterson, and whom Mandela considered as a great heroine: http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/uk-world-news/revealed-woman-whose-forgiveness-after-2907567#vpOb227ZyreKvEFQ.97 and another one regarding Hector’s sister who was on the same snapshot screaming near her brother’s dead body carried by another student: http://www.mediaclubsouthafrica.com/culture/3882-hector-s-sister-tells-the-story-still-38-years-later-01. However, there was a plaque which captured my attention on the elder student who was carrying Hector Pieterson’s dead body, 18-year-old Mbuyisa Makhubu, which were words from his mother saying, I quote: “Mbuyisa is or was my son, but he is not a hero. In my culture, picking up Hector is not an act of heroism. It was his job as a brother. He left him on the crowd and somebody saw him jumping over Hector. He would never be able to live here.” Those words were from Mbuyisa Makhubu’s mother Ma’Makhubu. And there were very few proofs about what he became with lots of unclear information, such as his so-called emprisonment in Canada (Source: http://www.thestar.com/news/immigration/2014/07/11/mysterious_man_in_canadian_jail_is_mbuyisa_makhubu_says_brother_of_antiapartheid_icon.html), family members haing perhaps found him back years later (Source: http://www.news24.com/Live/SouthAfrica/News/Family-believes-they-have-found-Makhubu-a-lost-apartheid-icon-20140813) and unanswered questions regarding him (Source: https://www.idfa.nl/industry/tags/project.aspx?id=71b5bc82-ed08-4e5d-a1cc-096b04848bc5&tab=dfs)

– While we were continuing our trip entering Soweto, we saw a series of male hostels for male workers. Those workers came to Soweto in the aim of having a better life living and could stay in those hostels for months all alone and away from their families, in very cheap and insecure conditions, like mentioned in that extract below, I quote (Source: http://www.nytimes.com/1992/09/20/magazine/island-of-fear-inside-a-soweto-hostel.html?pagewanted=all)

In the terrible logic of apartheid, townships like Soweto were designed as great reservoirs of cheap black labor to serve the white cities. The hostels, which housed migrant workers from the apartheid-designated black “homelands,” served as a way of topping off this labor pool without allowing the permanent settlements to expand. A certain amount of alienation was implicit in this scheme. The townships were family communities. The hostels were bachelor quarters for men who left their wives and children back home, and who used the township the way a sailor uses a foreign port. The apartheid engineers often aggravated these tensions by grouping hostel dwellers along tribal lines.

“Meadowlands Black Residential Area,” as it was formally designated, is one of more than 200 South African hostels where an estimated million black workers still reside; it is one of eight hostels in Soweto, South Africa’s largest city. Meadowlands is an array of 650 rectangular, single-story buildings of concrete block roofed with corrugated asbestos, each built to house 16 men. They are laid out in rows, like military barracks, along rutted dirt alleyways. The hostel is bounded on the north by flattop hills of earth dug up in the search for gold, on the west by a swath of bombed-out buildings that separate the hostel from the township neighborhood known as Zone One, on the south by the two-lane extension of Soweto Highway and the neighborhoods of Killarney and Mzimhlope.

Then we arrived in front of the Chris Hani-Baragwanath Hospital, which was known, as per our tour guide, for the separation of two newborn twins with heads conjoined and where Winnie Mandela had been working for a couple of times before meeting Nelson Mandela. Before looking for proofs about what the tour guide said, here is a small introduction I found about the Chris Hani-Baragwanath Hospital’s historic (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soweto#Chris_Hani-Baragwanath_Hospital): The Imperial Military Hospital Baragwanath, named after Cornishman John Albert Baragwanath, was built in 1941 during the Second World War to serve as a British Military Hospital. John Albert Baragwanath initially owned the situated site as a hostel, The Wayside Inn, until the British Government paid £328,000 to make it a hospital.[9] Field-Marshal Jan Smuts noted during the opening ceremonies that the facility would be used for the area’s black population after the war. In 1947 King George VI visited and presented medals to the troops there. From this start grew Baragwanath Hospital (as it became known after 1948), reputedly the world’s third largest hospital.[10] In 1997 another name change followed, with the sprawling facility now known as Chris Hani-Baragwanath Hospital in honour of the South African Communist Party leader who was assassinated in 1993 by white extremists. Regarding the twins with heads conjoined, I could retrieve an article dated 1988, certifying that the surgery was successful, but the sad news was that only one twin sister survived and was perfectly healthy, whereas the other one died with pneumonia, one year after her birth: http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/mpho-mathibela-one-siamese-twins-separated-operation-six-months-earlier-leaves-hospital-. Finally, I effectively retrieved a proof about Winnie Mandela working at that hospital, through that extract, I quote: She arrived in Johannesburg to study to be a social worker, doing her training at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. “Winnie was a remarkably effective and dedicated social worker,” writes Emma Gilbey in The Lady, The Life and Times of Winnie Mandela. “The patience and resourcefulness she had demonstrated with her younger brothers and sisters were now put to daily, professional use.”

(Source: http://www.mediaclubsouthafrica.com/nelsonmandela/3444-the-women-in-madiba-s-life). Sad though that I didn’t retrieve more sources than that regarding her short career in that hospital, but I think that a visit to that hospital would be worth knowing more about Winnie’s career as a trainee there.

– A little further, we discovered what the tour guide nicknamed with amusement the “Zulu McDonald”. It’s a place where street food is prepared with met freshly prepared before being cooked and then served to its clients. According to the tour guide, that kind of food was much far healthier than the fast food meals and that there were no chances to suffer from food indigestion nor food poisoning with such street meals. and at the same time those street foods are much more affordable and cheaper, like demonstrated by that article from Huffington Post (Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ross-resnick/street-food-is-the-new-fa_b_405471.html) And here is an example of street food from Soweto, with the preparation of the Kota sandwich (Source: http://www.forbes.com/sites/cathyhuyghe/2013/12/09/street-food-soweto-style-preparing-the-famous-kota-sandwich/#52076dfb6a96)

– A little further, we discovered another interesting place in Soweto, the Freedom Square, also known as the Walter Sisulu Square (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Sisulu_Square) where we retrieved the Freedom Charter, which was created by the anti-apartheid activists. They were made with 9 columns, each of them representing the 9 provinces of South Africa and the 10th column the South Africa overseas, according to what I understood from the tour guide (Source for the Freedom Charter: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_Charter). Near the Freedom Square there was the Freedom Square Hotel, and according to the tour guide, it was possible for every nationality to book a room there and which is accessible with new equipments and fully modernized.

– When we left the place to go to Mandela’s House, the tour guide mentioned about an anti-apartheid South African artist, Brenda Fassie (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brenda_Fassie) and one of her songs, “My Black President”, which was an anti-apartheid song and which was banned by the De Klerk government during apartheid because of its lyrics: Among several political tracks on the record was “Black President”, written around Mandela’s release from prison. It opened with the verse, “The year 1963/The people’s president/Was taken away by security men/All dressed in a uniform/The brutality, brutality/Oh no, my, my black president”. It was immediately banned by the de Klerk government. (Source: http://noisey.vice.com/en_uk/blog/theres-much-more-to-brenda-fassie-than-her-pro-mandela-anthem) and according to the tour guide, Brenda Fassie was even the first black woman to have been cremated, whereas during apartheid the black people didn’t have the right to be cremated after death. I don’t have proofs about Brenda Fassie’s cremation but I retrieved a PDF document which certified cremation as a problem for Black South Africans, which can be doanloaded from site http://www.hts.org.za/index.php/HTS/article/download/492/391. Since during apartheid some artists didn’t have the right to involve politics nor their anti-apartheid activism in their song lyrics, they were forced to disguise their lyrics to sell their songs, at the example of Eddy Grant’s “Gimme Hope Jo’Ana” (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gimme_Hope_Jo%27anna)

– Before arriving at Nelson Mandela’s house, we drove near another national and international hero who acted against Apartheid, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, whom our Mauritian archbishop Mgr Ian Ernest visited several times in South Africa. There are so many things to say about that hero which would be insufficient to mention in that blog post but here were his roles during Apartheid (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmond_Tutu#Role_during_apartheid) and since Apartheid in South Africa and worldwide (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmond_Tutu#Role_since_apartheid). I may post something soon about Desmond Tutu among the people who inspired me the most in another blog post later.

MANDELA HOUSE

Then we finally arrived at Mandela’s House, where we snapped so many of his personal documents, pictures, quotes retrieved on his wall banners, pictures of Winnie and her daughters, etc. I could feel by entering that little house, that despite its simpicity, it really meant to be a home for Nelson Mandela and his family and that all the walls of that house were speaking and revealing to me the life of tat wonderful hero when he said: “‘That night I returned with Winnie to No. 8115 in Orlando West. It was only then that I knew in my heart I had left prison. For me No. 8115 was the centre point of my world, the place marked with an X in my mental geography.

(Source: http://www.mandelahouse.co.za/history.asp) You can go on that link as well to have the complete details regarding Mandela House as well.

When we left Mandela House, the tour guide drove us to the final destination of our Johannesburg and Soweto roaming, the Hector Pieterson memorial which I mentioned before while talking about the student rebellion against Afrikaan language. While he was driving us, he mentioned abbout something regarding Winnie Mandela’s house which he showed us during our drive, and on which he precised that her house was to be given as a donation to some foreign celebrities such as late Khadafi from Libya, American actress Jane Fonda and Cuban President Fidel Castro. I am not sure about that matter but it saw an article which seems to illustrate what the tour guide said about that Winnie Mandela House, but which I need to make clearer with the gotour guide on my next visit to Johannesburg: http://theconservativetreehouse.com/2013/12/06/surviving-the-10-days-of-mandela-grief/.

– While we were still on our way to the Hector Pieterson memorial, the tour guide mentioned about a guy who used the sign language during Mandela’s memorial ceremony. But when I did my researches, most of the sources I obtained certified that sign language interpreter for being fake and even caused some complaints from the deaf community of South Africa: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/southafrica/10510455/Nelson-Mandela-memorial-interpreter-was-a-fake.html but no one knew the reason behind his intentions unless he protested in a video where he admitted being attempted with schizophrenia but that he was following treatments against it (Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7xX44YFTpQ8). The tour guide also mentioned about the president who succeeded Nelson Mandela after his death, Thabo Mbeki, but I need to come back to Johannesburg to better understand the life of that man, whose I found an article regarding his rivalry against actual president Jacob Zuma: http://www.timeslive.co.za/ilive/2016/02/15/On-the-political-conspiracy-judgement-that-gave-us-Zuma-Thabo-Mbeki1.

Finally, before going back to hotel, while ending our visit to the Hector Pieterson Museum, I stopped at the souvenir shop and saw a few books on the lives of some national heroes, for which I did some quick researches since they also have their part of activism against apartheid and for the welfare and development of South Africa after apartheid:

– Eusebius McKaiser:

Eusebius McKaiser is a political and social analyst at the Wits Centre for Ethics. He is also a popular radio talk show host, a top international debate coach, a master of ceremonies and a public speaker of note. He loves nothing more than a good argument, having been both former National South African Debate Champion and the 2011 World Masters Debate Champion. His analytic articles and columns have been widely published in South African newspapers and the New York Times. McKaiser has studied law and philosophy. He taught philosophy in South Africa and England.

– Jay Naidoo (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jay_Naidoo)

CONCLUSION:

In general, I really enjoyed that experience of my very first Johannesburg roaming and Soweto experience. Before leaving Johannesburg the day after, I met a waitress who was a native from Soweto, a few after I retrieved with great joy Margaret, another adorable waitress I befriended during my first holidays in Johannesburg for Christmas 2015. The waitress Margaret from Alexandra recognized me, and just after, Edna, the one from Soweto, befriended me and I left a little money for the both of them. They wer so happy that they filled me with their motherly blessings and hugged me very often with so much love. I pray that for our next trip to Soweto and Johannesburg, I succeed experiencing a half day or a day with Edna in Soweto to complete my experience there as a human one, and then with Margaret at Alexandra, which, I am sure, has its part of history too in South Africa, especially Johannesburg. I am very thankful also to Pat for all the information that he gave us during that tour for that very first expeirence that we did and during which I have learnt a lot of interesting things through him, in addition to the personal researches I did to verify Pat’s information. However, there are lots of points which I noted down, and which I would like to develop later for my next trip to Johannesburg since they remain either incomplete or unclear to me:

– I would like to know more about the history of beer by visiting the SAB World Beer

– Meaning of the red bricks in the Constitution Court of South Africa, especially why the red color was chosen to build that place as well as the previous prison.

-Does physical disability give you the right to do what you want? Especially when you know that no one can misjudge you? Case of Oscar Pistorius’s trial and the Indian one-legged dancer who was abused by her husband

– The new electric central at the entrance of Soweto: which link does it have with the other known Soweto power plant (Orlando Power Station)?

– Winnie Mandela’s career at the Chris Hani-B. Hospital: A place which is worth to visit since maybe we can obtain more details about Winnie’s career.

– Was the Orlando Power Station damanged by the students protesting against Afrikaans language learning during apartheid?

– The Liliesreaf Farm where Mandela was secretly operating and, at the same time, working as a farmer under a pseudonym, David Motsamayi, and which is a place worth to be visited too.

– Why, among the 7 Defence Lawyers in the Rivonia Treason Trial, should we focus especially on Chaskalson, Fisher and Bisos more than the other ones, as Mandela’s saviors against death penalty?

– Was late singer Brenda Fassie really the first black woman cremated in South Africa?

– Big Plan on Desmond Tutu’s life and achievements

– Was Shebeen beer made with Soka, which made of it a dangerous alcohol drink?

– Was Winnie Mandela’s house given as a donation to Khadafi, Fidel Castro and Jane Fonda?

– After Mandela: The rivalry between Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma: an instable presidency?

  • The beautiful love story between activist Jay Naidoo and his Quebecoise wife, the novelist Lucie Page